RECIPROCAL SYSTEM DATABASE Status Report: An Aperiodic Blog

December 31, 2016

The Fiction of “Dark Matter”

Filed under: Science — transpower @ 8:33 pm

Fritz Zwicky and Vera Rubin are responsible for the promulgation of the nonsense of “dark matter.”

  1.  Fritz Zwicky:  This astrophysicist was observing the Coma galaxy cluster and estimated the amount of mass it would have to have if the galaxies contained in it were to be gravitationally bound.  He determined that the mass would have to be 400 times as much as he could observe!  He then concluded, falsely, that this matter must be “dark.”  Dewey B. Larson explains the situation on p. 28 of The Universe of Motion:  “…the largest units in which gravitation is effective toward
    consolidation of its components are the groups of galaxies. Each such group is
    formed jointly with a number of adjoining groups. These groups begin
    separating immediately, but until the outward movement produces a clear-cut
    separation, their identity as distinct individuals is not apparent to observation.
    Here, then, is the explanation of the large ‘clusters’ and ‘superclusters’ of
    galaxies. These are not structural units in the same sense as stars or galaxies,
    or the groups of galaxies that we have been discussing. Each consists of a
    number of independent groups, formed simultaneously in the same general
    region of space, and separating so slowly that the processes of galaxy
    formation and growth are well under way before the units have moved far
    enough apart to be recognized as separate entities.”  Therefore the Coma galaxy cluster contains groups of galaxies which are slowly moving away from each other–there is no need for the hypothesis of “dark matter”!
  2. Vera Rubin:  This astronomer used the rotation curve of the Milky Way to conclude that mass was missing because Kepler’s equations did not work for the supposed “orbits” of the stars around the center of the Milky Way.  But this is a misapplication of Kepler’s equations!  Dewey B. Larson explains this situation on pp. 17-18 of The Universe of Motion:  “As already noted, the galactic aggregate has the general characteristics of a heterogeneous viscous liquid. A spiral structure in
    a rotating liquid is not unusual; on the contrary, a striated or laminar structure is almost always found in a rapidly moving heterogeneous fluid, whether the motion is rotational or translational. Objections have been raised to this explanation, generally known as the “ coffee cup” hypothesis, on the ground that the spiral in a coffee cup is not an exact replica of the galactic spiral, but it
    must be remembered that the coffee cup lacks one force that plays an important part in the galactic situation: the gravitational attraction toward the center of the mass. If the experiment is performed in such a manner that a force simulating gravitation is introduced, as, for instance, by replacing the coffee cup by a container that has an outlet at the bottom center, the resulting
    structure of the surface of the water is very similar to the galactic spiral.”  So, again, the “dark matter” hypothesis is superfluous.

Study the Reciprocal System and prove it for yourself!  The Reciprocal System:  Microcosmos Database is complete and ready for purchase.  The Reciprocal System:  Macrocosmos Database is a work-in-progress.  All the papers at are free to read!  Stop believing the irrational crap spewed by the professors you see on TV or in your classroom….

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